Open Source Disk Cleaner App BleachBit Gets First Update After 19 Months

By Derick Sullivan M. Lobga

BleachBit 2,0

Brief: Open Source system cleaner application BleachBit version 2.0 has been released. The new version brings some improvements and new features to the most used system cleaning application on Linux.

The open source system cleaning software, BleachBit has announced its first major release, BleachBit 2.0, after one and a half year. According to the release statement, this latest update “brings major improvements to infrastructure, security, stability, and the framework.”

The open source software that has been designed for both Linux and Windows operating system helps to free disk space by cleaning many applications and various web browsers as well as putting guard on users privacy. You can call it Ccleaner alternative for Linux.

BleachBit can completely delete files leaving no traces and prevent them from being recovered. It can also hide traces of files deleted using other applications. This was one of the main reasons why it shot to fame when US politician Hillary Clinton used it to delete some controversial emails from her servers.

BleachBit 2.0 deletes cookies, clears cache and Internet history, deletes logs, shreds temporary files and discard junk files that users may not be aware of.

New features in BleachBit 2.0

BleachBit 2.0 comes along with some major changes since version 1.2 was released in 2016. Below are some of the improvements:

  • Drag-and-drop Support: It is now possible to drag and drop files into the program window for shredding using its disk-cleaning tools

  • Web Browsers: Preservation of thumbnails, error Favicons have seen improvements in Chrome and Chromium browsers. You can now also clean site engagement history on these two browsers. DatabaseError on Firefox Firefox profiles has been fixed

  • Packages for Fedora 25 & 26, OpenSUSE Leap 42.x and Debian 16.10 have been added

  • For Windows OS, to improve on accuracy, some APIs have been improved to help users wipe specific files

  • Mac OS X (Darwin) has seen some improvements in its basic functions though an installer or GUI is still not available

  • Fixes specific only to Linux: There are some fixes that are only specific to Linux. These include the journald cleaner, use of PolicyKit, apt clean fixes, XDG base directrix specification in cleaners and an improvement in Liferea cleaner

Download BleachBit 2.0

BleachBit 2.0 has installation packages available for Linux-based distros like Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux Mint, Debian and OpenSUSE as well as for Microsoft Windows. You can download BleachBit 2.0 for Linux from the page below:

Download BleachBit 2.0 for Linux

Don’t hesitate to share your experience with the rest of us if you have used the latest version or old version of BleachBit.

From: It’s FOSS

Interview with MidnightBSD Founder and Lead Dev Lucas Holt

By John Paul

MidnightBSD Founder Lucas Holt Interview

Recently, I have taken a little dip into the world of BSD. As part of my attempt to understand the BSD world a little better, I connected with Lucas Holt (MidnightBSD founder and lead developer) to ask him a few questions about his problem. Here are his answers.

It’s FOSS: Please explain MidnightBSD in a nutshell. How is it different than other BSDs?

Lucas Holt: MidnightBSD is a desktop focused operating system. When it’s considered stable, it will provide a full desktop experience. This differs from other efforts such as TrueOS or GhostBSD in that it’s not a distro of FreeBSD, but rather a fork. MidnightBSD has its own package manager, mport as well as unique package cluster software and several features built into user land such as mDNSresponder, libdispatch, and customizations throughout the system.

It’s FOSS: Who is MidnightBSD aimed at?

Lucas Holt: The goal with MidnightBSD has always been to provide a desktop OS that’s usable for everyday tasks and that even somewhat non technical people can use. Early versions of Mac OS X were certainly an inspiration. In practice, we’re rather far from that goal at this point, but it’s been an excellent learning opportunity.

It’s FOSS: What is your background in computers?

Lucas Holt: I started in technical support at a small ISP and moved into web design and system administration. While there, I learned BSDi, Solaris and Linux. I also started tinkering with programming web apps in ASP and a little perl CGI. I then did a mix of programming and system administration jobs through college and graduated with a bachelors in C.S. from Eastern Michigan University. During that time, I learned NetBSD and FreeBSD. I started working on several projects such as porting Apple’s HFS+ code to FreeBSD 6 and working on getting the nforce2 chipset SATA controller working with FreeBSD 6, with the latter getting committed. I got a real taste for BSD and after seeing the lack of interest in the community for desktop BSDs, I started MidnightBSD. I began work on it in late 2005.

Currently, I’m a Senior Software Engineer focusing on backend rest services by day and a part-time graduate student at the University of Michigan Flint.

It’s FOSS: I recently installed TrueOS. I was disappointed that a couple of the programs I wanted were not available. The FreeBSD port system looked mildly complicated for beginners. I’m used to using pacman to get the job done quickly. How does MidnightBSD deal with ports?

Lucas Holt: MidnightBSD has it’s own port system, mports, which shared similarities with FreeBSD ports as well as some ideas from OpenBSD. We decided early on that decent package management was essential for regular users. Power users will still use ports for certain software, but it’s just so time consuming to build everything. We started work on our own package manager, mport.

Every package is a tar lzma archive with a sqlite3 manifest file as well as a sqlite 3 index that’s downloaded from our server. This allows users to query and customize the package system with standard SQL queries. We’re also building more user friendly graphical tools.

Package availability is another issue that most BSDs have. Software tends to be written for one or two operating systems and many projects are reluctant to support other systems, particularly smaller projects like MidnightBSD. There are certainly gaps. All of the BSD projects need more volunteers to help with porting software and keeping it up to date.

It’s FOSS: During your June 2015 interview on BSDNow, you mentioned that even though you support both i386 and amd64, that you recommend people choose amd64. Do you have any plans to drop i386 support in the future, like many have done?

Lucas Holt: Yes, we do plan to drop i386 support, mostly because of the extra work needed to build and maintain packages. I’ve held off on this so far because I had a lot of feedback from users in South America that they still needed it. For now, the plan is to keep i386 support through 1.0 release. That’s probably a year or two out.

It’s FOSS: What desktop environments does MidnightBSD support?

Lucas Holt: The original plan was to use Etoile as a desktop environment, but that project changed focus. We currently support Xfce, Gnome 3, WindowMaker + GNUstep + Gworkspace as primary choices. We also have several other window managers and desktop environments available such as Enlightenment, rat poison, afterstep, etc.

Early versions offered KDE 3.x but we had some issues with KDE 4. We may revisit that with newer versions.

It’s FOSS: What is MidnightBSD’s default filesystem? Do you support DragonflyBSD’s HAMMER filesystem? What other filesystems?

Lucas Holt: Boot volumes are UFS2. We also support ZFS for additional storage. We have read support for ExFat, NTFS, ext2, CD9660. NFS v3 and v4 are also supported for network file systems.

We do not support HAMMER, although it was considered. I would love to see HAMMER2 get added to MidnightBSD eventually.

It’s FOSS: Is MidnightBSD affected by the recent Spectre and Meltdown issues?

Lucas Holt: Yes. Most operating systems were affected by these issues. We were not informed of the issue until the general public became aware. Work is ongoing to come up with appropriate mitigations. Unfortunately, we do not have a patch yet.

It’s FOSS: The Raspberry Pi and its many clones have made the ARM platform very popular. Are there any plans to make MidnightBSD available on that platform?

Lucas Holt: No immediate plans. ARM is an interesting architecture, but by the very nature of SoC designs, takes a lot of work to support a broad number of devices. It might be possible when we stop supporting i386 or if someone volunteers to work on the ARM port.

Eventually, I think most hobby systems will need to run ARM chips. Intel’s planning on locking down hardware with UEFI 3 and this may make it difficult to run on commodity hardware in the future not only for MidnightBSD but other systems as well.

At one point, MidinightBSD ran on sparc64. When workstations were killed off, we dropped support. A desktop OS on a server platform makes little sense.

It’s FOSS: Does MidnightBSD offer support for Linux applications?

Lucas Holt: Yes, we offer Linux emulation. It’s emulating a 2.6.16 kernel currently and that needs to be updated so support newer apps. It’s possible to run semi-recent versions of Firefox, Thunderbird, Java, and OpenOffice on it though. I’ve also used it to host game servers in the past and play older games such as Quake 3, enemy territory, etc.

It’s FOSS: Could you comment on the recent dust-up between the Pale Moon browser developers and the team behind the OpenBSD ports system?

[Author’s Note: For those who haven’t heard about this, let me summarize. Last month, someone from the OpenBSD team added the Pale Moon browser to their ports collection. A Pale Moon developer demanded that they include Pale Moon’s libraries instead of using system libraries. As the conversation continued, it got more hostile, especially on the Pale Moon side. The net result is that Pale Moon will not be available on OpenBSD, MidnightBSD, or FreeBSD.]

Lucas Holt: I found this discussion frustrating. Many of the BSD projects hear a lot of complaints about browser availability and compatibility. With Firefox moving to Rust, it makes it even more difficult. Then you get into branding issues. Like Firefox, the Pale Moon developers have decided to protect their brand at the cost of users. Unlike the Firefox devs, they’ve made even stranger requirements for branding. It is not possible to use a system library version of anything with Pale Moon and keep their branding requirements. As such, we cannot offer Pale Moon in MidnightBSD.

The reason this is an issue for an open source project is that many third party libraries are used in something as complex as a web browser. For instance, Gecko-based browsers use several multimedia libraries, sqlite3 (for bookmarks), audio and video codecs, etc. Trying to maintain upstream patches for each of these items is difficult. That’s why the BSDs have ports collections to begin with. It allows us to track and manage custom patches to make all these libraries work. We go through a lot of effort in keeping these up to date. Sometimes upstream patches don’t get included. That means our versions are the only working copies. With pale moon’s policy, we’d need to submit separate patches to their customized versions of all these libraries too and any new release of the browser would not be available as changes occur. It might not even be possible to compile pale moon without a patch locally.

With regard to Rust, it requires porting the language, as well as an appropriate version of LLVM before you can even start on the browser.

It’s FOSS: If someone wanted to contribute to your project, both financial and technical, how can they do that?

Lucas Holt: Financial assistance for the project can be submitted online. We have a page outlining how to make donations with Patreon, Paypal or via bitcoin. Donations are not tax deductible. You can learn more at

We also need assistance with translations, porting applications, and working on the actual OS. Interested parties can contact us on the mailing list or through IRC on freenode #midnightbsd We also could use assistance with mirroring ISOs and packages.

I would like to thank Lucas for taking the time to reply to my many questions. For more information about MidnightBSD or to download it, please visit their website. The most recent version of MidnightBSD is 0.8.6.

Have you ever played around with MidnightBSD? What is your favorite version of BSD?

If you found this article interesting, please take a minute to share it on social media.

From: It’s FOSS

Five Tiny Features of Linux Mint Cinnamon I’ve Come to Love

By It’s FOSS Team

Linux Mint Features

Brief: It’s FOSS reader Dave Merritt shares some hidden and ignored features of Linux Mint Cinnamon that he started to love.

I’m often asked by traumatized Windows users which Linux operating system I would recommend. Until a year and a half ago I recommended Zorin OS without hesitation. However, last year at this time, Zorin was still working on a major re-write and could not offer an LTS (long-term support) release.

One of the problems of the Linux world is that distros great and small come and go. So lacking any certainty that Zorin would be ready before my version lost its support—or that Zorin would still exist—I downloaded Linux Mint Cinnamon 18 and have been using and recommending it ever since.

5 features of Linux Mint I love

As a result, the last 18 months have been quite boring for me: nothing ever seems to go wrong with Linux Mint. On the other hand, it’s nice to write about things that work well. For this article, I’ll focus on five tiny and easy-to-use features that I’ve found to be very useful. All come pre-installed. Which is nice since using Synaptic Package Manager or the bash line can be quite intimidating for newcomers to Linux.

1. Nemo Preview

I have a large music collection and often make compilation CDs for friends. If you’ve done this yourself, you’ve probably noticed that “gain” varies greatly from CD to CD and from format to format. And while Brasero and most other burning apps can smooth out small bumps it can’t do much about the more wild inconsistencies that often show up. And while the gain on a single track is easily adjusted using Audacity, it’s hard to tell how much adjustment is needed if you can’t quickly compare it to a benchmark file.

Say you’re at the point where if two tracks can be made to match, the disc will be perfect. My problem here is that my default music player, Banshee, has to suck up hundreds of albums from an external drive before it will open and that takes a few seconds. And once up it can take a few more seconds to switch back and forth from track to track. Full-featured music players simply aren’t designed to be nimble.

This is where Nemo Preview comes in. It’s built into the Nemo File Manager and couldn’t be faster or easier to use. Simply click on the file and hit “space bar”. If it’s an audio file, a micro player appears and starts playing instantly. Hit “space bar” again to close it, click on the new file and hit “space bar” again, and you’re listening to the other track. Nemo Preview also works on most other types of files, though not always with the same blazing speed.

Nemo preview feature in Linux Mint
Click the file and hit space bar
Nemo audio preview Linux Mint
A micro music player will come up

2. Mint Menu Part 1 The “Uninstall” Feature

A few weeks ago I was trying to make a Skype call, but Skype wouldn’t open. This wasn’t the first time this has happened to me. It happens every time Skype upgrades. Microsoft makes an upgraded version for Linux but makes no allowances for the removal of the newly defunct version. Trying to install a current version isn’t all that hard; the latest version is present in the Mint repositories and its easy enough to down a .deb file from the Skype website. But if you forget to remove the old version first, you can wind up with two versions—only one of which works.

For an experienced user, this can be easily solved two different ways. The redundant version can be removed using Synaptic Package Manager, or by opening
Software Manager, clicking on “show installed applications”, hunting it down and then removing it by clicking “uninstall”.

However, the Mint Menu offers a far simpler solution. Locate the application and “Right-click” on the icon. This activates a drop menu—which also allows you to create a panel or desktop launchers. Click on “Uninstall” from the drop menu. This activates Synaptic, prompting you to type in your password. Finally, a progress window will open, which will tell you when it’s done (or will sometimes ask to allow certain other libraries to be added or removed).

Unintsall feature in Mint Menu

So, returning to the redundant Skype problem, since both versions will appear in the menu, simply test and then “Uninstall” the one that doesn’t work.

3. Mint Menu Part 2 Where the heck did that Download Go? Use “Recent Files” to find out!

Like every Linux OS I’ve ever used, Mint Menu has a “Recent Files” option. This option remembers not only files you’ve created or used but also everything you’ve downloaded. A mistake I frequently make is addressing a download to the wrong folder. Nemo has a decent search function but it can take time. It’s far easier to find a file’s location in the Mint Menu. Click on “Recent Files”, hover over the misplaced file and at the bottom of the menu it’s exact location will appear.

Find file location in recently used files in Linux Mint
In Recent Files, hover over the misplaced file and at the bottom of the menu it’s exact location will appear

If the “Recent Files” option doesn’t appear in your menu, that’s because there is an option to turn it off in order to protect your computing activities from prying eyes. If you can’t find it on your menu, go to “System Settings” and click “Privacy”. You’ll see this screen:

Turn on Privacy in Linux Mint
Turn on Privacy in Linux Mint

Simply toggle it to “on” and adjust further as suits your needs. (But remember, if you select “Never forget old files” your menu will take longer and longer to open as time passes and entries multiply.)

Access recently used files
Recently used files can be turned on or off

4. Unattended Upgrade: An invisible friend

For at least a decade I’ve been an occasional user of “ClamAV”. It’s an open source virus scanner for Linux. When I use it, it’s as a courtesy: Linux systems may be immune to all known Windows viruses, but Linux users can pass them on to systems which are not.

Anti-virus software has unique needs: writers of malicious code don’t release their work on a predictable schedule. So virus signatures are ever-changing. And furthermore, the more creative mal-ware becomes, the more creative search algorithms need to be.

But even though ClamAV can be downloaded from most repositories, that was pretty much it. If you wanted to use you had to manually update first the engines, and then the virus signatures—and in that order, if you wanted it to work properly. Since these updates came directly from the author’s servers, this process could take a lot of time.

While this was a hassle, it usually worked—eventually. And I can understand why virus signatures should be updated manually with every use—it would place an absurd burden on the repositories to keep them current. But what I could never understand why the repositories never sent updates for the interface. In a decade of using ClamAV on Ubuntu, Fedora and Zorin I never received a single update.

I’m the sort of nosey-parker who examines every update that comes my way. One of the features of the Mint “Update Manager” is that it provides a description of the item as well as a change log. Soon after switching to Mint, one of the updates I got was called “unattended upgrades”. Oddly it lacked any such information. That’s because “Unattended Upgrades” (along with “Mint upgrade” which I plan to examine more thoroughly in the future) isn’t really a package. What it does is search your system for rarely used packages from official repositories and PPAs to make sure even low priority applications are checked for updates instead of—as usual—being ignored.

Unattended Upgrades

Soon after I received for the first time ever updates for ClamAV. Above are my most recent updates.

5. Sound Settings

This last built-in feature has little practical value, but it can nevertheless be loads of fun. Most Linux systems come with a limited range of built-in audio files to give you audible cues for various system states; log in, log out or notifications of new emails, for example. Linux Mint Cinnamon has gone to great lengths to offer users the ability to install their own sound scripts and to choose which system events you’d like among them to notify you about. The only limitation is that custom sounds must be in ogg or wav formats. It’s also a good idea to nest them somewhere in your home folder, though not absolutely necessary.

You can find and download system sounds all over the web. But if you’re feeling adventurous you can easily make your own. They can be verbal: simply record your own voice—if you have a webcam you’ve got a microphone. You can also raid your music collection. Using Audacity you can clip out a section of a song, save it as an ogg or wav file and use the “fade in” and fade out” effects to smooth out the edges. Or you can go really crazy and use the wide range of effects. (My favorite is “Paulstretch”.)

Once you’ve made your palette of sounds, installation is a breeze. Go to “System Settings”, scroll down to “Hardware”, click “Sound” and then “Sound Effects”. From this menu, you can add or remove sound effects by toggling them on or off. By choosing the music icon you can plug in your custom sounds and then you can test them with the play icon.

System Sound Settings
System Sound Settings

A Few Caveats

The first three features I mentioned were available in Zorin 9, although I couldn’t find them in the first release of Zorin 12, they may have been added since. None of the first three features appear in the latest version Ubuntu Gnome. Finally, for all I know “Unattended Upgrades” is common a feature of all Ubuntu-based Linux Systems these days. But what I can say in total candor is that in over a decade of using Linux I never received a single update for “Grub Customizer” or “Clamav” until I switched to Linux Mint.

About author Dave Merritt: I’m a 59 years old, full­time landscaper and part­time PCmedic. I’ve been an avid Linux user for over ten years. In that time, I do not claim to have made every possible mistake, only most of them. I’m a big fan of prog rock, avant­ jazz and J S Bach, and enjoy reading Neal Stevenson and anything to do with the foundational problems in modern physics.

From: It’s FOSS

How to Install and Use Snap in Various Linux Distributions

By Ambarish Kumar

How to use Snap on any Linux distribution

Brief: Snaps are Canonical’s way of providing a cross-distribution package management system. In this article, we will see how to install and use snaps in various Linux distributions.

You might be hearing about Snap applications these days. Canonical describes Snap as a universal Linux package which can work on any distribution.

Snaps are basically an application compiled together with its dependencies and libraries – providing a sandboxed environment for the application to run. These are easier and faster to install, can receive latest updates and is confined from the OS and other apps.

An application can be packaged for every Linux desktop, server, cloud or devices in the form of snap. For an application developer, maintaining different package formats and subsequent updates is a pain, which Canonical in the form of Snaps has tried to overcome. It has worked well because more and more applications are now providing Snap packages.

In other words, instead of worrying about DEB packages for Debian/Ubuntu, RPM packages for Fedora etc, you can use Snap package that would work on all Linux distributions with Snap support.

Advantages of snaps

  • Easier to create and manage for Developers: Snaps are easier to create and contain all the dependencies and libraries needed to run, which also means the application uses the latest libraries and do not face any dependencies issues.
  • Automatic Updates: Updates to a snap are delivered automatically on a daily basis, and reaches out to everyone irrespective of the base OS.
  • One snap for everything: be it a desktop, server or cloud.
  • Different releases availability: A snap can be maintained in the stable release, beta versions, and daily build at the same time and you can switch between each other whenever you want.
  • Security: Snaps run in a sandboxed environment, isolated from the rest of your system.

How to install Snap on Linux

Before you Snap packages, you will have to install snapd. snapd is a management environment that handles installation and updates of snaps. Installing snapd will enable Snap support on your Linux distribution.

Let’s see how to install it for different Linux distributions.

Enabling Snap support on Debian and Ubuntu based distributions

If you want to use Snap applications on Linux Mint and other Debian or Ubuntu based distributions, use the command below:

sudo apt install snapd

Enabling Snap support on Fedora based distributions

sudo dnf install snapd

Enabling Snap support on Arch-based distributions

snapd is available in Arch User Repository. Run the below command to install and enable it.

yaourt -S snapd
sudo systemctl enable --now snapd.socket

Enabling Snap support on OpenSUSE based distributions

snapd is not officially included for OpenSUSE. To install in Tumbleweed use the below commands:

sudo zypper addrepo snappy
sudo zypper install snapd

Once the package is successfully installed from the community repo, enable the systemd unit.

sudo systemctl enable --now snapd.socket

How to use snap with the basic Snap commands

Once you are done with the snapd installation, it’s time to see how to use it. We have already covered Snap commands in detail. Here, I’ll just quickly list out the most useful Snap commands.

You can search different snaps and install it. There is a Snap store which holds different public and private apps (or snaps) for clouds, desktops, devices etc.

Finding a snap

Anyone can publish a snap in the store, however, you only see the snaps that are published to the stable release and has been reviewed. Use the below command to search for a snap:

sudo snap find libreoffice

Installing snaps

Once you found the snap you are looking for, you can install it with the below command:

sudo snap install <snap_name>

List out installed snaps

You can use the below command to see the snaps you have installed along with their versions and the developer:

snap list

Update an installed snap app

Snaps are updated periodically to their latest version. In case you are trying to do it manually, type in the below command in the terminal:

sudo snap refresh <snap_name>

Uninstall a snap package

To remove a snap

sudo snap remove <snap_name>

Final Words

With different Linux distributions running different package managers and formats, there is no single way of installing an application in every Linux distribution the same way. Snap can be the solution to this problem, over-coming the installation issues (like a missing library) and making sure you are running the latest version!

What do you think about snaps? Do tell us in the comments.

From: It’s FOSS

Have a Laugh With Funny Linux Man Pages

By Abhishek Prakash

Funny Man Pages in Linux

Brief: Who says Linux command line is no fun? When you are in the mood of some naughty, geeky fun, read these witty man page entries.

If you have been using Linux for some time, you might already be familiar with the term man pages. Mostly because you would have been advised by your colleague, friend or a total stranger on a Linux forum to RTFM (read the f***ing manpage).

Long before people start using search engines for each and everything, Linux users relied on the man pages to know how a certain Linux command works. It is still a great help.

But I am not going to talk about greatness or usefulness of the man pages. I am going to show you the witty side of man pages.

How about reading some witty man page entries?

Funny Man Pages: for some light-hearted Linux fun

There is a package unsurprisingly called funny-manpages and it adds some witty entries to the man pages.

Before I show you a few examples, let me give you the same ‘warning’ that its description does:

A set of miscellaneous humorous manpages (don’t take them too seriously!). Includes, amongst others, rtfm (1). Warning! Some of these manpages might be treated offensive. You’ve been warned.

If you are not extra-sensitive and can tolerate stuff with a sexual overtone, you should be fine with these entries.

I think funny-manpages are available in most Linux distributions. You can install it using your distribution’s package manager. In Debian and Ubuntu based distributions, use the command below:

sudo apt install funny-manpages

Once you have this package installed, you can read some entries using the man command. For example, if you use command man celibacy, you’ll see an output like this:

Linux funny man pages

You can see the style of writing is identical to the real man page entries. While this particular entry is deliberately not big, some of the funny man page entries are well detailed.

baby — create new process from two parents

baby -sex [m|f] [-name name]

baby is initiated when one parent process polls another server process through a socket connection in the BSD version or through pipes in the System V implementation. baby runs at low prior‐
ity for approximately forty weeks and then terminates with a heavy system load. Most systems require constant monitoring when baby reaches its final stages of execution.

Older implementations of baby did not require both initiating processes to be present at the time of completion. In those versions the initiating process which was not present was awakened
and notified of the results upon completion. It has since been determined that the presence of both parent processes result in a generally lower system load at completion, and thus current
versions of baby expect both parent processes to be active during the final stages.

Successful completion of baby results in the creation and naming of a new process. Parent processes then broadcast messages to all other processes, local and remote, informing them of their
new status.

-sex define the gender of the created process

-name assign the name name to the new process

baby -sex f -name Jacqueline

completed successfully on July 9, 1992 at 9:11pm. Jacqueline's vital statistics: 8 pounds 3 oz, 20 inches, long dark hair. The parent process, Kim Dunbar, is reportedly doing fine.

cigar(6), dump(5), cry(3).

Despite its complexity, baby only knows one signal, SIGCHLD, (or SIGCLD in the System V implementation), which it uses to contact the parent processes. One or both parent processes must then
inspect the baby process to determine the cause of the signal.

The sleep(1) command may not work as expected on either parent process for some time afterward, as each new instance of baby sends intermittent signals to the parent processes which must be
handled by the parents immediately.

A baby process will frequently dump core, requiring either or both parent processes to clean up after it.

Despite the reams of available documentation on invoking and maintaining baby, most parent processes are overwhelmed.

Funny, isn’t it? Perhaps next time someone says RTFM, you could actually type man rtfm and read the entry:

rtfm - a response for easy questions from clueless lusers

rtfm [ -p ] [ -h ] [ -d option ] [ -i interval ] [ -a action ] [ -q luser]

rtfm is a command for system administrators to use in dealing with new users. rtfm is useful for dealing with users having trouble with their pictures downloaded from alt.binaries.pic‐
tures.erotica. rtfm will continue to run until killed by hand, using `kill processid'. rtfm can be invoked by anyone who has enough of a clue to know what a man page is.

-p Give the answer in a polite fashion.

-h Tell the clueless luser to go to hell. Used with the -p option, they'll look forward to the trip.

Some of the other funny man page entries are sex, condom, flame, flog, gong, grope, party, rescrog etc.

If you find Linux man pages a bit boring, try reading these funny man pages. If you like referring to man pages, you would surely chuckle at these funny man pages.

From: It’s FOSS

Iridium Browser: A Browser for the Privacy Conscience

By John Paul

Iridium web Browser

Brief: Iridium is a web browser based on Chromium project. It has been customized to not share your data and thus keeping your privacy intact.

Google Chrome is one of the most popular web browsers in use today. People like it because it is quick and highly customizable. However, many people are leery of using it because Chrome tends to send lots of user information home to the massive Google servers. (You didn’t think that Google built these huge data centers to store cat videos, did you?) Thankfully, there is an alternative for those who are privacy conscious.

What is Iridium?

Iridium Browser is a browser based on the Chromium project. This is the same project that Google Chrome is based on. The difference is that the Iridium team modified the code to make it respect your privacy.

Iridium is not a fly-by-night project. It is backed by the Open Source Business Alliance. According to Iridium, the OSBA has around 190 members.

Here is a list of the many enhancements the project made to the Chromium code.

  • Increase RSA keysize to 2048 bits for self-signed certificates
  • Generate a new WebRTC identity for each connection instead of reusing identities for 30 days
  • Generate a new ECDHE keypair for each WebRTC connection instead of reusing them for multiple connections
  • Disable using system-provided plugins (i.e. Java, Flash, etc.)
  • Disable “Use a web service to help resolve navigation errors”
  • Disable autocomplete through prediction service when typing in Omnibox
  • Always send “Do-Not-Track” header
  • Network/DNS prediction is disabled by default
  • Block third-party cookies by default
  • Fetch plugins list from where it will be updated regularly
  • Site data (cookies, local storage, etc.) is only kept until exit, by default
  • Passwords are not stored by default
  • Input form autofill is disabled by default
  • For IPv6 probes, use a DNS root server instead of Google
  • The default search provider is Qwant
  • Load “about:blank” on new tabs instead of the currently set search engine and/or promotions.
  • Don’t report Safe Browsing overrides.
  • Don’t use autofill download service.
  • Disable cookies for safe browsing background requests.
  • Disable the battery status API.
  • Disable background mode
  • Disable EV certificates, so they are shown just like “normal” certificates
  • Disable Google cloud printing
  • Disable Google hot word detection
  • Disable Google experiments status check
  • Disable Google translation service
  • Disable Google promotion fetching
  • Disable Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) status check
  • Disable Google Now
  • Disable automatic update check
  • Disable profile-import on first run
  • Network/DNS prediction is disabled by default
  • Let user confirm downloading translation dictionaries from Google
  • Always prompt for download directory
  • Don’t ask to send settings to Google by default on profile reset
  • Show all extensions (including internals) in chrome://extensions.

Since Iridium is based on Chromium, you can make use of any of the plugins on the Chrome Web Store.

Iridium is available for Windows, macOS, Debian, Mint, Ubuntu, openSUSE, Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and CentOS. They offer both an installer and a portable version for Window. Iridium is not available for any mobile operating systems.

Experiencing Iridium browser

Overall, I had a good experience with Iridium. I was able to install all four of the extensions that I use. I did not have any trouble visiting the page that I wanted to look at. A yellow notification flashed up a few times while I was in the Chrome Web Store to show me where I was being redirected to. Since I was in the Chrome Web Store it was not a problem.

One cosmetic issue that I noticed was that the branding was inconsistent. Some places said Iridium while others said Chromium. Whenever I see this on a forked project, I think to myself “I wonder if the devs ever heard of find & replace”.

I was also surprised by the fact that there was an option to sign into your Google account. So I tried to take advantage of backing up my passwords and bookmarks from Chrome.

But here’s a catch! The option to sign in to Google account is there but it doesn’t work. It never really signs into. You are not linked to Google account at all. I wonder why the developers kept this option because it is sure going to confuse people.

Useless Sign in option to Google account

A word on Chrome extensions. I know that the Tor Browser recommends against adding extra extensions because they may be sending your information to other parties. I think the same is the case with Iridium which cannot do much against the third party extensions you add on your own.

Final thoughts on Iridium browser

Iridium is a nice concept with a well intent. But at the end of the day, Iridium is still based on Google Chrome (yes, I know Chromium, but the point still stands). There are other open source web browsers that are not based on Google at all.

If you want to give Iridium a try, you can find Iridium here. If you are curious or you want to help the project, you can view the project’s GitHub account here.

Have you ever Iridium? What is your version of privacy-enhanced browser? Please let us know in the comments below.

If you found this article interesting, please take a minute to share it on social media.

From: It’s FOSS

Tutanota: Encrypted Open Source Email Service for Privacy Minded People

By Phillip Prado

Tutanota Logo

A little while back, I reviewed an email service call ProtonMail. I had been a long time ProtonMail user by that time, and I had little negatives to say about the service. In fact, I went so far as to say that everyone should use it.

Since then, I have heard of another email provider that you may be interested in. It’s a little different, but it touts some of the same features ProtonMail does: privacy, security, open-source code, etc. It’s called Tutanota, and like ProtonMail, I am a very big fan.

Without wasting any time, here’s why I think Tutanota is worth your time.

What is Tutanota:

Tutanota is a German based, privacy centered email provider. The Tutanota team refers to their product as “Secure mail for everyone!”, exclamation point and all. This lets us know that just because they tout a crazy sounding feature like “end-to-end encryption” doesn’t mean the average joe computer user can’t utilize their service. That’s because, unlike ProtonMail, Tutanota does not advertise its location as a feature of the service, and instead puts their marketing emphasis on encryption and ease of use. Which, as you will see later, is much deserved.

Why use Tutanota:

Here are just a few of the many reasons you may want to choose Tutanota as your next email provider.

1. Privacy and Security

It makes sense that with an email client that advertises itself as private and secure that their customers would benefit from privacy and security. And in Tutanota’s case, that is absolutely true. Now, I can’t really speak to that as I don’t believe anyone has tried to intercept my emails since I have been using the product, but the features themselves seem promising.

Unlike other email clients, Tutanota has multiple ways that it has implemented encryption. It has end-to-end encryption between Tutanota clients, as well as optional password protected encryption when a Tutanota user is emailing someone using another email provider. How this works is if I, a Tutanota user, wants to send an encrypted email to my coworker, a Gmail user, for example, we can agree on a predetermined password that will allow us, and only us, to see the email. How this works is when I write the email, I have the option to encrypt it with a password. Then when the recipient receives the email, the only way for them to read the email is by inputting that password I set to encrypt the email. This way of doing this is simple, seamless, and secure. Though there are other email providers that do something similar, I have not found one that does it is easily as Tutanota.

2. Custom Domain

Like almost every other email client, you get a custom email address under the Tutanota domain when you sign up for an account. But, similar to ProtonMail, Tutanota offers a couple pricing tears for users to choose from, starting at a grand total of $0 a month, and working its way up from there.

The main difference between the free account and the paid offerings is that the free account has limited users, limited storage, the inability to use a custom domain, slightly less customization, and the free account only has community support with the paid accounts have premium support from the Tutanota staff. Then, starting at 1€ a month, or about $1.24USD a month, the number of users, storage, etc. increases depending on how much you pay.

3. Open Source

Does this one really need any more explanation? Since Tutanota is open source, under the GPL v3 license, us users can be certain that our rights are not infringed upon, as well as all the other goodies that come with an open source product.

4. Simple to Use

This is where I think Tutanota has it’s real competitive advantage. It is one of the most simple email clients to use that I have come across. Even email clients that I did not think were confusing before, like Gmail, now seem confusing compared to Tutanota. I would like to say that I could count on the community to help me if something went wrong, but since Tutanota was so easy to set up and use, I don’t know when I would reach out to them to find out. It was so simple, that I would feel comfortable enough signing my grandparents up for a Tutanota account knowing that they would be able to use the product without much guidance and that they wouldn’t accidentally break something in everyday use. To use the provider the user needs to use the web interface or custom applications, and both of these are designed very intuitively and are easy to digest. Which brings me to my next point.

4. Cross-Platform

Since Tutanota uses encryption, you cannot use third-party email clients, but Tutanota has done a fantastic job developing their web application as well as custom applications for both Android and iOS. That means whatever device you use, as long as it has a browser, you will be able to use Tutanota.

Downsides of using Tutanota:

Just because Tutanota is secure, easy to use, and open source, doesn’t mean the experience is completely perfect. Here are some negatives you may run into using the product.

1. No Third-Party integration

Like I just mentioned, since Tutanota uses encryption there is no ability to use third-party email clients. That means I cannot use Tutanota on some of my favorite email applications like Thunderbird, Geary, or even K-9 Mail. I am stuck using the Tutanota mobile application and the web app. This isn’t all that bad, but since I use other email accounts for work and my personal life, this just means there has to be yet another application on my phone, and one more tab open in my browser in order to everyday tasks.

2. Limited Features

On the free account, you only get up to 1gb or storage, no premium support, and you only have one user. This may be fine if you are just using the application for personal everyday use, but for something more professional you will need to fork up some cold hard cash to get some of the features you might be wanting.

Another limitation is just how the encryption works. Password protected emails to non-Tutanota users can only truly function unidirectionally, which means only emails that I initially send out can be encrypted. If another email provider emails me first, then the email will not be encrypted, making the communications susceptible to interception.

For me, the worst part about Tutanota’s free account is the domain. You have the choice to choose between a couple different variations of the word Tutanota, including tuta and tutamail, as well as the option to use keemail, as the domain at the end of your email address, but honestly, I can’t say I am a fan of the domain options. With all due respect, I just don’t really like the way “” sounds. Maybe I am being picky, but ProtonMail sounds a little less goofy to me, and other options like Gmail and Yahoo are more commonplace so they don’t sound as out of place. This is just my opinion.

3. No easy account recovery

Like all products that utilize encryption, recovery is a headache. Since Tutanota treats its customers like adults, we are expected to be responsible and remember our passwords. That means keeping your password in a safe, secure, and probably offline location is a must. This really isn’t that big of a deal if you take the necessary precautions. So be intentional about creating a safe and secure password and be sure to keep track of it, and you will be fine.


When all is said and done, Tutanota is a fantastic option to consider when you are thinking about choosing an email provider. I have definitely adopted it as one of my two main personal email providers, as well as ProtonMail. The community seems vibrant, though haven’t needed to reach out to them for support since the product is dead simple, and it is easy to contribute to the project for those who so desire.

Tutanota truly stands out in my mind as a straightforward, minimalist approach to encrypted communication. In a world that seemingly needs to pump more functionality into every product, Tutanota does to the opposite. There are no unnecessary features, no confusing language or crazy UI, just an awesome product that works as promised. What more could you possibly want from them?

From: It’s FOSS

Fix Laptop Doesn’t Suspend After Lid is Closed on Ubuntu Linux

By Abhishek Prakash

Ubuntu power settings

Brief: You close the lid of your laptop but it keeps on running instead of going into suspend mode? Here are a few ways how you can make Ubuntu suspend when the lid is closed.

One of the ways to save battery on Ubuntu without losing work is to use the suspend mode. I prefer to link with the lid action of my laptop. If I close the lid of the laptop, it goes to suspend/sleep mode and when I open the lid, it wakes up.

However, there are several users who are facing issues with suspend behavior when the lid of the laptop is closed. Ubuntu simply keeps on running without bothering about going in suspend mode.

There is a confirmed bug on this issue starting Ubuntu 16.04. Unfortunately, this bug has not been fixed even after more than a year.

While I cannot fix the bug, I can surely suggest you a couple of ways so that Ubuntu goes to suspend mode after the lid is closed. Let’s see how to do that.

Fixing Ubuntu won’t suspend when laptop lid is closed

I do hope that these fixes work for everyone but it’s not a guarantee because the bug is hardware dependent and though the workaround works for most laptop models, there are surely a few exceptions.

Let’s start working on it.

Make sure to enable suspend for lid close action

This is a no-brainer. You must make sure that you have the correct settings in place.

Go to System Settings and then click on Power. In the power setting, make sure that option for ‘When the lid is closed’ is set to Suspend.

If you had a different setting here, you should check if you are able to suspend Ubuntu by closing the lid. If not, then follow the workaround in the next section.

Workaround to make Ubuntu suspend when laptop lid is closed

First, ensure that you have pm-utils installed on your system. pm-utils is a collection of scripts that handle suspend and resume. Ubuntu should already have it but no harm in verifying it.

sudo apt install pm-utils

After that, we need to edit the logind.conf file of systemd. This file usually contains the entries that are used by default by systemd. However, all the entries are commented out here. If you change the settings in this file, it will take precedence and over the systemd default settings.

It’s always a good idea to make a backup of configuration files before changing them. Use this command:

sudo cp /etc/systemd/logind.conf  /etc/systemd/logind.conf.back

And after that, install gksu so that you can open a graphical application (gedit in this case) from the terminal. You can also use a terminal based text editor like Vim if you are comfortable with that.

sudo apt install gksu && gksudo gedit /etc/systemd/logind.conf

You’ll see lines like these in this file:


What you have to do is to remove the # from some of the lines and change it’s value to:


Fix suspend not working on Ubuntu linux

Save your changes and restart your system. Now check if your system goes to suspend mode when the lid is closed.

If not, you can also try changing the below line (though I am not sure if that makes a difference):


I hope this helps you to fix the annoying issue of Ubuntu not suspending when laptop lid is closed. This should work with Ubuntu 16.04, 17.04 and 17.10. Not sure about Ubuntu 18.04.

Do share your feedback whether it worked for you or not.

From: It’s FOSS

Min: An Open Source Web Browser for Minimalists

By Abhishek Prakash

Min web browser

Brief: Min is an open source web browser with a clean UI and minimalist look. Despite being minimal, Min packs enough features for a standard web browsing experience.

Remember the last time we discussed non-Google web browsers? Well, here is one more to the list.

Min is an open source web browser written using CSS and JavaScript using Electron. If you hate using Electron-based applications, perhaps you can still read about Min even if you don’t use it.

Its focus is to provide a minimal web browser with a clean UI and standard features. And it does the job pretty well.

The interface is clean and simple. It has the essential features like ad-block, script-block, address bar web search, etc.

Image courtesy: Min browser

You can also group tabs in tasks. You can open the task view and drag and drop to rearrange the tabs.

Min web browser
Image courtesy: Min browser

Since it uses Electron and Electron uses Chromium, it shouldn’t collect your data unless Chromium does that itself.

Despite being based on Electron, Min is surprisingly not resource hungry. It is light on RAM usage and is quite fast.

Features of Min browser

Some of the main features of Min browser are:

  • Minimalistic user interface
  • Fuzzy search in the address bar to quickly get search engine suggestions and from the web browsing history.
  • DuckDuckGo is the default search engine, but it can be changed to use other search engines
  • Built-in ad and script blocking. This can be enabled from menu->Edit->Preference.
  • Tabs can be grouped into ‘tasks’, which is basically collections of tabs. You can switch between the tasks to have one group of tabs visible and in use.
  • Reading mode allows you to view a webpage as a book page for easier reading. Every time you open a webpage in reading mode, it is saved to a reading list for 30 days.
  • Focus mode allows you to concentrate on current tab by hiding all other tabs.
  • Browser actions quickly do several things, even if you don’t remember the keyboard shortcut. For example, using !se in the address bar will suggest !settings browser action for opening the settings menu.
  • Dark mode
  • Easy on system resources
  • Plenty of keyboard shortcuts
  • PDF viewer
  • Cross-platform, available for Linux, Windows and macOS

If you decide to install it, I highly advise taking the Mint tour. It will show you how to use the browser because it might be slightly overwhelming at the beginning. You can always find the “take a tour” option under Menu->Help.

Min Browser

Installing Min browser on Linux

Before you decide to use Min, I will give you the same warning what Min browser gives itself. It might not be completely safe to use it.

The reason is that Min browser uses Electron framework and Electron often uses an older version of Chromium. Which would mean that some security fixes in the newer Chromium versions might not be available for Min through Electron.

For this reason, it is really up to your call if you want to use Min or not.

If yes, you can find the ready to use binaries for Debian/Ubuntu, Windows and macOS along with its source code on the link below:

Download Min Browser

Do you use some not so mainstream web browser? Which one is it? And did you try Min? What do you think of it?

From: It’s FOSS

Why do you see error: snap “xyz” not found?

By Abhishek Prakash

Snap package not found on Linux

Brief: If you are encountering snap not found error for some Snap packages, this tutorial will help you find why.

Snap is the new universal package system from Ubuntu that lets you easily and securely install software on all Linux distributions that support Snap. I recommend reading my other article to know more about Snap packages and how to use them.

While Snap packages are an excellent new way of installing applications in Linux distributions, you may encounter a few error here and there. Once such error I covered previously is “snapd returned status code 400“.

But recently one of It’s FOSS reader encountered another Snap error while trying to install VLC 3.0. You might encounter the same error with other applications like Spotify or Skype. Let’s try to troubleshoot it.

Troubleshooting error: snap not found

Before you do anything else, please make sure that you have snapd installed on your system. You can install it using the standard package installation command of your Linux distribution.

For Debian and Ubuntu based distributions, use the command below:

sudo apt install snapd

Once you have made sure that snapd is installed, let’s move forward. Try to see if your system actually finds the snap application in question.

For example, if you are trying to install VLC using Snap and your system cannot find the application, try to list all the Snap packages available with ‘v’ or ‘vl’ etc.

You can use the find option of snap command in the following manner:

snap find <search_term>
Finding Snap packages for installation in Ubuntu Linux
Search for Snap packages

Now, a lot depends on the result. There are two possibilities here:

1. Snap find command could not find the application

If the output doesn’t consist the application you were trying to install, it means that application is not available for your system.

Hold on a second! What did I just say? Is it even possible? If it is not available for your system how can other people be able to install it?

The answer lies in whether you are using a 32-bit or 64-bit operating system. You probably already know that support for 32-bit systems is fading. Newer applications are often developed only for 64-bit systems.

If the Snap application in question is only available for 64-bit systems and you are using a 32-bit system, your Linux distribution won’t see the packages. Hence you see the package not found error while trying to install it with Snap command.

In other words, you cannot install that application using Snap. Perhaps you can look for the regular way of installing that application if it is available in 32-bit format.

2. Snap find command finds the application

It could happen that the application is listed in the output of the snap find command. But then what could be the problem in installing the package?

This depends if the Snap package is available in classic. Snap packages by design are secure and they do not interact with the host system. Some applications need to use the host system and hence a ‘classic mode’ was introduced in Snap packaging.

Classic snap application

If the application is available in classic mode, you need to specify that snap needs to be installed in classic mode. This is done by using the –classic flag in the command.

sudo snap install <package_name> --classic

Did it help you?

I hope this quick tip helped you to get rid of the common snap package not found error. Feel free to use the comment section below to provide your feedback.

From: It’s FOSS