/etc/passwd File Format in Linux Explained

By YourOwnLinux

Full article here

  1. Username field: This field denotes the User (or User Account) Name. According to the man page of useradd command, “Usernames may only be up to 32 characters long”. This username must be used at the time of logging in to the system.
  2. Password field: Second field is the Password field, not denoting the actual password though. A ‘x‘ in this field denotes the password is encrypted and saved in the /etc/shadow file.
  3. UID field: Whenever a new user account is created, it is assigned with a user id or UID (UID for the user ‘mandar‘ is 500, in this case) and this field specifies the same.
  4. GID field: Similar to the UID field, this field specifies which group the user belongs to, the group details being present in /etc/group file.
  5. Comment/Description/User Info field: This field is the short comment/description/information of the user account (For this example, user account ‘mandar‘ belongs to the user Mandar Shinde, hence this comment).
  6. User Home Directory: Whenever a user logs in to the system, he is taken to his Home directory, where all his personal files reside. This field provides the absolute path to the user’s home directory (/home/mandar in this case).
  7. Shell: This field denotes, the user has access to the shell mentioned in this field (user ‘mandar‘ has been given access to /bin/bash or simply bash shell).

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From: Linux.com

Akademy 2015 coming to an end

During the BoF days from Monday to Thursday, a great many tiny videos were shot of many of the attendees by Dan Leinir Turthra Jensen. These have been edited and cut up and turned into a video explaining, very shortly, what KDE really is. Being a community of people contributing to the development of software, the conclusion is straight forward. See the unsurprising conclusion in the video entitled What is KDE? (webm, mp4), created as a tribute to the KDE community and all the amazing people in it.

From: LXer

OpenSSL: License Agreements and Changes Are Coming

By n8willis

At the OpenSSL blog, Rich Salz has announced
the project’s decision to migrate away from the “rather unique
and idiosyncratic
” OpenSSL license to the Apache 2.0 license.
In order to make the change in an upcoming release, though, the
project “will soon require almost every contributor to have a
signed a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) on file.

Individual and corporate versions of the CLA are posted; trivial
patches will evidently not trigger the need for the submitter to sign
and file an agreement. Salz closes by noting that more details are
still to come, since “there is a lot of grunt work needed to clean up the backlog and untangle all the years of work from the time when nobody paid much attention to this sort of detail.

From: LWN

Mozilla criticizes browser-selection change in Windows

By n8willis

Mozilla has launched a multi-pronged campaign to challenge a recent
change in Windows that has the effect of overriding users’ choice of
Firefox as the default web browser. Mozilla CEO Chris Beard posted a
blog entry
outlining the problem as well as an open
to Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella. The change apparently
landed with the recent Windows 10 release and, as Beard explains it,
while it is technically possible for people to preserve their
previous settings and defaults, the design of the new Windows 10
upgrade experience and user interface does not make this obvious nor
” Mozilla has also posted tutorials
and videos
to help users restore Firefox as their default browser.

From: LWN

9 stories of science evolving with open source

Science might be looking a lot more like open source these days.Researchers and scientists around the world are calling for freely-licensed data sets; open-access publishing conditions; and collaborative, transparent peer review. They’re seeking ways open source principles might enhance centuries-old practices of knowledge production in the digital age.It’s becoming a movement: open science. In this year’s series, learn more about how science is evolving through open source:read more

From: LXer